KariA‡i mosque from inside the key Bosnian highlands, the spot where the annual three-day pilgrimage commemorating Hajdar-dedo KariA‡a€”an very early messenger of Islam in Bosnia, a dervish sheikh, and someone of Jesus (evlija)a€”takes spot. Shot by David Henig, 2009.
While the Yugoslav communist routine oppressed and practiced popular power over different religious symptoms and events, it decided not to exclude the KariA‡i pilgrimage, and that's perhaps impressive due to the fact pilgrimage keeps historically become well-attended ( MulahaliloviA‡ 1989 :192a€“196). In 1993, inside Bosnian fight (1992a€“95) a Yugoslav nationwide military aquarium went throughout the age-old solid wood mosque. The surfaces was at the full time hardly available, as there comprise numerous landmines dispersed in the ground around the pilgrimage site, thus nearby Muslims quickly planned the annual party in a nearby provincial village mosque. As soon as the fighting, the surroundings ended up being little by little de-mined. The wooden mosque got rebuilt in my black crush 2002 and the pilgrimage completely repaired.
Although its recovery was actually caused by a team of hometown employed Muslims, the mosque in addition to the land they sits on become technically held and access to them happens to be owned by the state-approved Islamic society (Islamska Zajednica). The Islamic area is accountable for organizing the yearly KariA‡i pilgrimage. The pilgrimage happen at the conclusion of July. The meeting is definitely relied in accordance with the previous Julian schedule due to the fact 11th Tuesday after Jurjevdan (that is,., St. George's Day, May 6). The pilgrimage begins by week's noon prayer and persists up until the Sunday midday prayer. Merely male Muslims are allowed to go to at KariA‡i.
The pilgrimage meeting frequently includes reciting from the entire Qua€™ran (hatma pigeon), singing tunes revering Allah (ilahija), along with other execution such as the performance of mevlud passages in Turkish and Bosnian, tevhid for Ottoman plus Bosnian martyrs (A?ehide), and collective devotional and cheerful prayer, kijam zikr (Arabic, qiyam dhikr). 2 The kijam zikr is conducted by dervishes and led by a dervish sheikh. Some other pilgrims usually see than join in this kind of prayer, as dervishes have typically come conceptualized of ambiguously and happened to be viewed as the Islamic a€?other withina€? in the original Yugoslavia ( Bringa 1995 :221; Duijzings 2000 :107). But the devotional prayer via pilgrimage was also sang during socialist circumstances. This is often probably significant, as, in the 1950s, the Islamic group, with all the Yugoslav condition's service, prohibited all dervish requirements in Bosnia-Herzegovina to be a€?devoid of cultural valuea€? ( Algar 1971 :196). 3
Unlike happening of the old-fashioned cradles of Bosnian Sufism employing aged dervish lodges in the western areas of crucial Bosnia (cf. Algar 1971 ; A?ehajiA‡ 1986 ; MiA?ijeviA‡ 1997 ), the continuity of dervish purchases got severed during the north pieces. Ergo, KariA‡i happens to be widely offered and realized for a long time exclusively as an area of Muslim annual pilgrimage. However, for the late 1980s, a dervish band of the Rifaa€™i order, that I have learned, got created in the region. 4 In its research authenticity and restoration of Sufi schooling (tesavuf) in the region, the students entwined its identification employing the famous body of Hajdar-dedo KariA‡. Even though the dervish party here tracks their identity through its sheikh's a€?spiritual lineagea€?(silsila) to Kosovo, the dervishes start thinking about KariA‡i their own religious cradle, in addition they get pregnant of Hajdar-dedo KariA‡ as the messenger of Sufism in the area and their spiritual forefather.
The Ajvatovica pilgrimage runs an enormous part in steps town Muslims from the key Bosnian highlands reflect on the shift of consecrated surroundings a€?after socialism.a€? Within their narratives and everyday shows, our community buddies often juxtaposed KariA‡i and so the Ajvatovica pilgrimages. But the great majority of them haven't pilgrimed to Ajvatovica.
The Ajvatovica pilgrimage, near to the village of Prusac, offers you legends much like the ones from the KariA‡i site, dating back to the 17th century and regarding another popular messenger of Islam, effendi (as well as dervish sheikh) Ajvaz-dedo. The figures state that Ajvaz-dedo was actually a pal of Lord (evlija). When he hit Prusac, there seemed to be no best water system in the community. There were best a spring close town, nevertheless it is hindered by a rock. Ajvaz-dedo expended 40 times praying to Allah, basically the 40th day the man wished for two light rams colliding. When he woke upward, the stone experienced split by 50 percent. Neighborhood villagers spotted this as a miracle (keramet) and boon (bereket), and, since that time, have got pilgrimed around the environment the spot where the rock separate.
Unlike the KariA‡i pilgrimage, the Ajvatovica had been formally forbidden inside socialist time period, in 1947 (cf. MulahaliloviA‡ 1989 :192a€“196), and got revitalized only in 1990, mainly through the engagement of Islamic Community; various media, for instance the Islamic weekly publication Preporod; and Stranka Demokratske Akcije (SDA; Party of Democratic Action), led once by Alija IzetbegoviA‡. The spot where in fact the Ajvatovica pilgrimage website is was operated and defended during warfare from Bosnian military, and, hence, through open rhetoric, gathered the character of a holy land, revealing the continuity of a threatened Muslim community as well as its educational heritage (cf. Rujanac in media ).
It easily become evident to me your strategy the Ajvatovica pilgrimage is orchestrated these days has a significant role in Bosnian Muslim nationwide community national politics, as controlled because of the Islamic people, or figuring conspicuously in regional discussions. Ajvatovica are delivered through Islamic area being the main annual Muslim get together in European countries, one with very long continuity, inspite of the formal bar imposed in 1947. As it is orchestrated and choreographed, a€?The times of Ajvatovicaa€? (Dani Ajvatovice) uncover as an assemblage of religious pilgrimage, political collecting, and societal celebration comprised of different functions, concerts, and classes being commonly marketed and promoted from the Islamic group through several billboards. The Ajvatovica pilgrimage is actually presented, to paraphrase several nearby resources, as a a€?manifestation of customs and resilient continuity of Bosniak [Muslim] name and culturea€? even though the a€?largest Muslim get together in Europea€? (e.g., determine Ajvatovica.org.ba 2010 ). Plus, during my fieldwork, Having been many times assured that Ajvatovica were in the past an all-male getting, although after 1990 it had been publicly advertised when you look at the nationalized rhetoric as a gathering for those Muslims. This means that, the Ajvatovica pilgrimage got reorchestrated and instrumentalized in Bosniak governmental discussion as a fertile expression in post-Yugoslav public discussions on collective Bosnian Muslim name as well as Bosniaksa€™ research credibility as an independent post-Yugoslav region (nacija).